Inthere were only two American cities with a population of more than ,; bythere were six, and three of these — New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia — boasted over one million inhabitants. Roughly 40 percent of Americans lived in cities and the number was climbing. Although much of the urbanization occurred in the industrial regions of the Northeast and Midwest, it was a national phenomenon that often corresponded to the presence of railroads.
For example, Atlanta experienced a rapid economic recovery in the last quarter of the century, and Los Angeles became a boomtown in the s due to the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads. Because the birth rate in the United States declined in the late nineteenth century, urban growth reflected an internal migration of Americans from farms and small towns to the larger cities and the overseas migration that brought millions of people to U.
The new immigration. In the s, however, the origin of immigrants shifted to Southern and Eastern Europe. Another popular misconception is that all immigrants found permanent homes in the United States. In fact, perhaps as many as three out of every ten new arrivals most of them single young men returned to their homeland after they earned enough money to buy land or set up their own business.
Immigrants moved into the poorer sections of the major cities — New York's Lower East Side, for example — and often into neighborhoods abandoned by upwardly mobile immigrant groups. Seeking familiar surroundings, they tended to live and work with people from their native country.
Although their children attended public schools and quickly learned English, immigrant parents continued to use their native tongue, transplanting a bit of the Old World into the new.
Whether nicknamed Little Italy, Little Bohemia, or Chinatown, immigrant neighborhoods were rich with Old World languages, from the words printed in the newspapers and on the signs in store windows to the voices heard on the streets. These neighborhoods, which helped ease the transition from greenhorn as newcomers were often called to citizen, were terribly overcrowded, with upward of 4, people housed on a single block. Such overcrowding contributed to poverty, crime, and disease.
Moreover, new immigrants were often portrayed as dangerous radicals ready to undermine the American political system or as threats to the jobs of American workers because of their willingness to settle for lower wages. Given these attitudes toward foreigners, it is not surprising that calls for restrictions on immigration began to sound.
InCongress denied convicts, paupers, and the mentally ill the right to enter the United States and three years later prohibited contract laborers immigrants whose passage was paid in return for working for a certain period of time.
Neither law had much affect on what was essentially an open immigration policy. The Chinese Exclusion Acton the other hand, suspended immigration from China for ten years; it was extended for another decade in and then was made permanent in The law was not repealed until Skyscrapers and mass transit. As more and more people crowded into the large cities, the value of urban land increased.
The solution to rising costs of real estate and the need to maximize the use of available space was to build up. The availability of cheap cast iron and, later, structural steel, improved fireproofing, and the electric elevator allowed for the construction of taller and taller buildings. Chicago became the home of the skyscraper because of the disastrous fire of that destroyed most of the central business district.
The building codes that went into effect after the fire required that all new construction use noncombustible materials.
Office buildings of 20 or more stories were common in large cities throughout the country by the end of the nineteenth century. One attempt at improving housing for the poor actually had the opposite effect. When two tenements were built next to each other, the indentations created an airshaft that provided limited ventilation and light to the interior apartments.
A block lined with dumbbell tenements housed more than 4, people, significantly adding to overcrowding in poor neighborhoods; future construction was banned in New York in Improved urban transportation helped shape the modern city.Growth expanded opportunity, while economic instability led to new efforts to reform U. The United States continued its transition from a rural, agricultural economy to an urban, industrial economy led by large companies. New technologies and manufacturing techniques helped focus the U.
Bya majority of the U. Episodes of credit and market instability in the early 20th century, in particular the Great Depression, led to calls for a stronger financial regulatory system. In the Progressive Era of the early 20th century, Progressives responded to political corruption, economic instability, and social concerns by calling for greater government action and other political and social measures. Some Progressive Era journalists attacked what they saw as political corruption, social injustice, and economic inequality, while reformers, often from the middle and upper classes and including many women, worked to effect social changes in cities and among immigrant populations.
On the national level, Progressives sought federal legislation that they believed would effectively regulate the economy, expand democracy, and generate moral reform.
Progressive amendments to the Constitution dealt with issues such as prohibition and woman suffrage. Preservationists and conservationists both supported the establishment of national parks while advocating different government responses to the overuse of natural resources. The Progressives were divided over many issues. Some Progressives supported Southern segregation, while others ignored its presence. Some Progressives advocated expanding popular participation in government, while others called for greater reliance on professional and technical experts to make government more efficient.
Progressives also disagreed about immigration restriction. During the s, policymakers responded to the mass unemployment and social upheavals of the Great Depression by transforming the U. Although the New Deal did not end the Depression, it left a legacy of reforms and regulatory agencies and fostered a long-term political realignment in which many ethnic groups, African Americans, and working-class communities identified with the Democratic Party. Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns.
Popular culture grew in influence in U. New forms of mass media, such as radio and cinema, contributed to the spread of national culture as well as greater awareness of regional cultures. Migration gave rise to new forms of art and literature that expressed ethnic and regional identities, such the Harlem Renaissance movement. Official restrictions on freedom of speech grew during World War I, as increased anxiety about radicalism led to a Red Scare and attacks on labor activism and immigrant culture.
In the s, cultural and political controversies emerged as Americans debated gender roles, modernism, science, religion, and issues related to race and immigration. Economic pressures, global events, and political developments caused sharp variations in the numbers, sources, and experiences of both international and internal migrants.
Immigration from Europe reached its peak in the years before World War I. During and after World War I, nativist campaigns against some ethnic groups led to the passage of quotas that restricted immigration, particularly from southern and eastern Europe, and increased barriers to Asian immigration. The increased demand for war production and labor during World War I and World War II and the economic difficulties of the s led many Americans to migrate to urban centers in search of economic opportunities.
In a Great Migration during and after World War I, African Americans escaping segregation, racial violence, and limited economic opportunity in the South moved to the North and West, where they found new opportunities but still encountered discrimination.
Migration to the United States from Mexico and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere increased, in spite of contradictory government policies toward Mexican immigration. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, new U. Anti-imperialists cited principles of self-determination and invoked both racial theories and the U. After initial neutrality in World War I, the nation entered the conflict, departing from the U. Although the American Expeditionary Forces played a relatively limited role in combat, the U.
Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.Between the years of and culture and society in America experienced a major transition.
This period was a time of change and altering of the treatment of certain races and genders. During this time period, Americans had a growing desire to expand westward.
With the combination of immigrants moving to urban centers, and rural to urban migrations occurring simultaneously, cities and metropolises became crowded.
Americans believed it was their God given right to expand America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The American desire to expand led to the Mexican American War. Newly acquired territories from this war resulted in the debates on whether or not to become slave or free states. Disputes such as Bleeding Kansas arose on whether or not to allow slavery. As a part of the Great Compromisethe Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress in order to enforce that all slaves who ran away should be returned to their masters.
This news was earth shattering because African Americans. After the end of the Civil Warthe practice of slavery was banned under the 13th amendment. Although emancipated slaves became freedmen, their statuses in society did not change. Rigid race based laws, such as the Jim Crow laws and the Black Codeswere effective in maintaining the oppression of blacks.
Chapter 25: America Moves to the City, 1865-1900
Arguably the lives of African Americans depreciated, as they were no longer given food and housing from their previous owners, and instead relied on the sharecropping system which oppressed the slaves equally as much as they were under slavery.
Other than the lives of the freedmen, the Civil War also impacted the former Confederate states. Upon rejoining the Union, the Confederate states maintained a separate culture from the rest of the US- they considered themselves Confederates before Americans.
Historical Context — Transcendentalists are people that take part in the Transcendentalist movement. Transcendentalists do not accept the general state of intellectualism, spirituality, and religion. Intended Audience — the current government and the common people. Purpose — to discuss the beliefs of the transcendentalist and try to sway people into their beliefs.
After years of struggle, the 19th Amendment was adopted ingranting American women the constitutionally protected right to vote. Both movements have similar goals and occurred at the same time so they were commonly supported by individuals of the other movement.
In addition, this source is significant because it depicts the struggles of the suffragettes in addition to the effects of their movement. The reaction to the First Industrial Revolution known as Transcendentalism was similar to the response following the mechanization of agriculture in the mids. This response is known as the Green Revolution. Skip to content Between the years of and culture and society in America experienced a major transition. This news was earth shattering because African Americans After the end of the Civil Warthe practice of slavery was banned under the 13th amendment.
All the content of this paper is his own research and point of view on APUSH and can be used only as an alternative perspective. APUSH Accessed April 15, Leave your email and we will send you an example after 24 hours 23 : 59 : If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.APUSH Review: America's History, Chapter 5
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Between andthe population of the United States A. Between andimmigration to the United States A. Milwaukee B. Chicago C.
Highway Act of 1956
Cleveland D. Cincinnati E. Ireland and Germany. Between andthe overwhelming majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States came from A. Italy and Russia. England and Russia. England and Ireland. Ireland and Italy. Beforethe largest single group of arriving Irish immigrants was A.
Prior tohostility among native-born Americans toward immigrants was spurred, in part, by A. American Party. Republican Party. Nativist Party. Libertarian Party. In comparing turnpike transportation to canal transportation, A.
New York was the first to finance turnpike construction. The Erie Canal was A. In the s and s, railroads A. Private investors provided nearly all the capital for rail development. Railroads helped weaken the connection between the Northwest and the South. Long distance rail lines weakened the dependence of the West on the Mississippi River.
Chicago was the railroad center of the West. The Morse code used electrical current to create A.History for twenty-eight years. History Teachers Guide. History reading. In other words- Mr. The Federal-Aid Highway Act offor the first time, authorized the construction of over 40, miles of interstate highways in the United States and ultimately became known as the Eisenhower Interstate Highway System.
From the early s the federal government was integral in improving transportation facilities. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, technological advances in transportation increased calls for the federal government to become involved in road construction. Even a cycling group joined the cause, forming the National League for Good Roads in to lobby Congress for federal funds to improve existing roads. The needs of World War I, even before direct U.
The creation of the Model T made the automobile affordable to even average American and stimulated suburban growth as Americans. Bymore Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. The creation of the Model T made the automobile affordable to even average American and stimulated suburban growth as Americans distanced themselves from urban settings.
As more American moved outward from city centers, the cry for better roads increased. Additionally, the prosperity of the s led to increased leisure time and greater travel opportunities. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of Phipps Act was a comprehensive plan to develop an immense national highway system. While the intent of these projects was not to create a national highway system, it nevertheless engaged the federal government in the business of road construction, to a degree previously unknown.
Even so, a study of three potential North-South and three East-West interstate highway routes, financed by tolls, was conducted under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of and found to be financially infeasible. In the s, World War II contributed to highway construction slowing, due to resources and manpower redirected to the war effort.
Still, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of called for the construction of 40, miles of interstate highways after the war, one-half of the cost financed by states with the federal government covering the other half. However, while the federal government continued to spend money on road construction, funds were not allocated specifically for the construction of the interstate highway system until the Federal-Aid Highway Act of Highway Act of Fear of a nuclear attack during the Cold War led to consideration of interstate highways as a means for mass evacuation of urban centers during an atomic strike.
By the mids several factors changed to catalyze the actual construction of an interstate highway system. Tremendous increases in population, as well as the number of cars on the road, necessitated massive spending on road construction.
Additionally, the tremendous growth of suburbs, like Levittownsdrastically increased the number of commuters and clogged traditional highways. The increased consumerism of the s meant that goods needed to be transported longer distances efficiently.
Finally, fear of a nuclear attack during the Cold War led to consideration of interstate highways as a means for mass evacuation of urban centers during an atomic strike. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of authorized the construction of more than 41, miles of interstate highways connecting major urban centers.
It set up the Highway Trust Fund to finance the construction with revenue from certain excise taxes, fuel taxes, and truck fees, specifically earmarked for interstate highway construction and maintenance. Since the s the interstate highway system has grown to more than 47, miles of roadways.
While increasing the ease and efficiency of travel, the interstate highway system had negative impacts as well. One suggested goal of the interstate system was to eliminate slum areas in many cities. The interstate highway system also dislocated many small businesses along the highways it paralleled and negatively impacted the economy of towns it bypassed, much as railroads had done in the 19th century.
The Highway Act of created the interstate system we know today. It was the result of a long, sometimes painfully slow, process of involving the federal government in creating a national system of connective highway links to create the national market economy Henry Clay envisioned.
It was both demanded by and a bolster to American mobility. Highway Act of Highway Act of admin apprend. The Highway Act of Federal Funding Dating to The Model T and the s.The photograph shows changes in the role of women in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries mostly due to which of the following developments? The technological and managerial changes in the production of goods as depicted in the above photograph most directly allowed for which of the following modern cultural developments?
Based on what you know about female factory workers during the period, which of the following is most likely true about the women in the photograph? The immediate consequences of the type of corporate consolidation depicted in the political cartoon above most directly led to public debate regarding the:. Which of the following movements of the later twentieth century was most like the Progressive response to the development in industrial capitalism depicted in the political cartoon?
Immigration to the United States from the s through the early twentieth century, as might be inferred from the graphs, had which of the following immediate consequences? Which of the following was a late nineteenth- to early twentieth-century reaction to the events depicted in the above graphs?
In addition to America, other countries also experienced heavy immigration during this period. Which of the following best describes what distinguished American immigration from that of other countries in the late s and early s?
The sheer diversity of immigrants coming to America allowed them to assimilate and blend in more easily. Immigrants to America at the time came mostly from the professional middle classes of the developed European nations. Which of the following best describes the direct effect of the immigration patterns of the late s and early s as shown in the graphs on the development of urban centers in America during this period?
Which of the following most directly describes developments which led many Europeans to leave their native countries for America in the late s and early s? Which of the following best describes developments in American society in the late s and early s, which. With industrialization came the growth of a professional class, of which many of these women were a part and which led them to having to deal with the social ills of the day.
Women had played significant roles in the agrarian movements such as the Populist movement, which paved the way for social acceptance of the idea of the greater role for women outside the domestic sphere. Changes such as decreasing birthrates, less time needed to spend with children, and less time devoted to housework gave women more opportunity to define themselves outside of the home.
Increasing demands by Latinos, American Indians, and Asian Americans for social and economic justice. Which of the following best describes the philosophical motivations behind the work of reformers like Jane Addams?
Middle class Americans had a duty to impart their values to the immigrants to help them assimilate. Which of the following best describes a major issue for the Progressive movement, as reflected in the above excerpt? Government should regulate in such a way to encourage competition by preventing the emergence of large corporate combinations.
That only a strong federal government could institute order in the problems wrought by an industrial economy. Which of the following best describes economic developments in America of the late nineteenth century, which led to the larger public debate of which the above excerpt is a part?
Which of the following best describes developments in nineteenth-century Europe which helped spur arguments in America such as that of Mahan above? The major European countries were rapidly developing new technologies, due to easier access to natural resources of other countries.
Which historical evidence best supports this belief? During the Great Depression, which official government action might immigrants such as those in the above photo have feared? What might have been a typical experience of the individuals in the above photo in the years soon after their immigration?Republican Motherhood was a concept derived from the notion that women should serve as educators of young men in order to teach them to become productive American citizens and embrace the Enlightenment ideas that fueled the concept of Republicanism following the end of the American Revolution.
The well-established patriarchy in colonial America would also not allow women to widely participate in the political or economic arenas, again, limiting them to the domestic sphere.
However, even socially, women lacked equality in areas such as education, marriage, and child rearing. In the late 18 th century, socially, women lacked equality in areas such as education, marriage, and child rearing. The 2 nd Great Awakening served as an underlying force of Republican Motherhood as Christian values were increasingly passed down to children. Due to the influence of Republican Motherhood, women shaped future generations and created the very people that would help to tear down societal barriers throughout the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
The majority of women were expected to be domestic caretakers, child bearers, and obedient servants to their husbands or fathers. Few, if any laws, existed that would protect the rights of women or promote their causes. Having been forced into this sphere of domesticity women craved an opportunity to do more.
As industrialization and mechanization took hold in the new country women moved from rural areas to urban areas. Drawn by the promise of wages in factories like the Lowell Mills of the Northeast, women began to see that there was more for them to contribute to society. Though, frequently that same society was not quite yet ready to embrace a strong minded and economically independent woman.
The American Revolution solidified the Enlightenment ideals of Republicanism and free will, yet those things were still widely misunderstood.
Even though some women sought out their own individual paths through economic independence, society called for someone to teach the upcoming generations of Americans what it would take to preserve these ideals.
This would become known as Republican Motherhood and that duty fell to women because men viewed themselves too busy, as they were engaged in the world of politics and economics.
Society called for someone to teach the upcoming generations of Americans what it would take to preserve these ideals. Women evolved into becoming the moral guardians of the country. The white men dominated the spheres of economics and politics by restricting access to minorities and women, while women were forced into the sphere of domesticity. The differing needs of the family became evident as people moved away from rural areas and the practice of subsistence farming and began to embrace the industrialized urban areas.
The life of the yeoman farmer relied on a familial workforce, so larger families were necessary. However, families in urban areas struggled to support such large families so the country saw a decline in the birthrate in the early to mid th century. The women of urban centers guided the rise of a generation of free and independent thinkers who embraced progressive ideas about education, government, and social equality.
Rural areas clung to the patriarchal roots in their social structure and raised children accordingly. This split between rural and urban child rearing is where you saw the greatest divide in the concepts of Republican Motherhood.
While northern cities and people were more likely to embrace progressive ideas, southern cities and families clung to traditional political, economic, and social roles which only further increased the sectional divides in the country. Due to women being responsible for the education of children throughout the nation, women themselves were given opportunities to further their own education. These schools supported the education of boys as well as girls.
More and more public supported schools were built in order to increase access to education. The impact of more widespread access to education set the stage for many social reform movements of the early 19 th century. As women, and the next several generations of Americans, embraced Enlightenment ideals of life and liberty, the call for progressive reforms only increased. Abolition, suffrage, and marriage rights were all causes that a newly educated population began to advocate for thanks to the freedom of thought provided by increasing access to higher level education.
A generation of female influence over education culminated in with the Seneca Falls Convention. At this convention, activists like Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton created the Declaration of Sentiments and established a reform platform that would guide the Progressive Movement for the next 75 years. Enlightenment ideals of life and liberty, the call for progressive reforms only increased.
The concepts and principles of the American Revolution were instilled in children all across the country and it was these ideas that created change throughout the 19 th century. Women embraced Republican Motherhood and their roles of guiding change. Educated women in the North became some of the most ardent abolitionists and advocates for greater freedoms for all leading up to and after the Civil War.
In their pursuit of freedom for slaves in the South, the women of the North realized that they themselves were not entirely free. Women worked on various aspects of social equality. Suffrage rights, marriage and divorce rights, child custody rights, and increased access to secondary education opportunities were all advocated for and achieved at some point.